Relief & Rehabitation

Flood & Earthquake Relief and Rehabitation

Our state is full of natural resources. Charming climate, fresh air, little more forest mountains, sacred rivers, etc. are our real wealth. These are very helpful for us. But when our nature becomes angry becouse of our misbehaviour, it results in various disasters like flood earthquake, etc. and it becomes too dificult for us to serviev.
Our state, Bihar, is India's most flood prone state. Many lives and wealth are destroyed every year. Our AIBI RESEARCH works to help poor and helpless people affected in the disaster.we work for the relief and rehabitation of the affected people in different districts of the state. We provide them helping money, food and materials for instant relief. We also work for the rehabitation of affected people by providing them money and houses.In many districts like Madhubani, Saharsha, Supall, Bhojpur, etc. We have done laudable work agen the disasters and have helped the pepole and provded them relief and rehabitation.
Our aim is to help poor and helpless people and we have got sucessed in getting the Aim. And our Organization AIBI RESEARCH will always be ahead in helping them and providing relief and rehabitation materials when ever it will be required.

History of Flood in Bihar

Bihar is India's most flood-prone State, with 76 percent of the population, in the north Bihar living under the recurring threat of flood devastation. About 68800 sq Km out of total geographical area of 94160 sq Km comprising 73.06 percent is flood affected.
The plains of Bihar, adjoining Nepal, are drained by a number of rivers that have their catchments in the steep and geologically nascent Himalayas. Kosi, Gandak,Burhi Gandak, Bagmati, Kamla Balan, Mahananda and Adhwara Group of rivers originates in Nepal, carry high discharge and very high sediment load and drops it down in the plains of Bihar. About 65% of catchments area of these rivers falls in Nepal/Tibet and only 35% of catchments area lies in Bihar. A review by Kale (1997) indicated that the plains of north Bihar have recorded the highest number of floods during the last 30years. In the years 1978, 1987, 1998, 2004 and 2007 Bihar witnessed high magnitudes of flood. The total area affected by floods has also increased during these years. Flood of 2004 demonstrates the severity of flood problem when
a vast area of 23490 Sq Km was badly affected by the floods of Bagmati, Kamla & Adhwara groups of rivers causing loss of about 800 human lives, even when Ganga, the master drain was flowing low.

Flood highlights during (1997-2009)

In the year 1998 maximum discharge in the first week of July in most of the rivers in North Bihar caused excessive pressure on the embankment along the rivers resulting in damages at several places. Embankments of Burhi Gandak, Bagmati, Adhwara and Kosi were partially damaged. Three hundred and eighty one persons died and public property worth rupees 9,284 lacs was damaged. There was crop damage of about rupees 36,696.68 lacs.
In the year 1999 there was unexpected heavy rains in the month of October in the catchments in Nepal and flood level suddenly touched the 1987 HFL at JhanjharpurRailwayBridge in Kamla Balan river and the spurs in Kosi river experienced threat throughout the flood season. Crop of rupees 24,203.88 lacs, and public property of rupees 5409.99 lacs were damaged.
In the year 2000 Kamla Balan and Bhutahi Balan catchments received heavy rainfall during first and last week of July resulting in unexpected rise of water level. In first week of August 2000 Eastern Kosi Afflux Bund was punctured.Twelve thousands three hundred and fifty one villages were affected and crop worth rupees 8303.70 lacs were damaged.
In the year 2001 north Bihar was badly affected by flood due to heavy rain in Nepal portion of catchments of rivers. Western Kosi embankment, Bhutahi Balan right embankment, Bagmati left embankment and Burhi Gandak left embankment were partially damaged. Crop of rupees 26721.79 lacs and public property of rupees 18353.78 lacs were damaged.
During year 2002 North Bihar experienced serious flood and overtopping reported in Kamla Balan left embankment and Khiroi right embankment. Four hundred and eighty nine persons died. Crop damage of rupees 51149.61 lacs and public property damage of rupees 40892.19 lacs were reported.
In the year 2003 HFL at Bhagalpur surpassed the 1978 record of 34.18m and at Gandhighat, Patna the HFL surpassed the 1994 record of 50.27m in river Ganga and the status of flood in other rivers except Ganga and Gandak remain normal.
In the year 2004 catchment area of North Bihar rivers received heavy rainfall in the first week of July itself which not only broke last three years flood record but also surpassed the 1987 flood. Flood level at Dubbadhar site on river Bagmati surpassed all time high flood level by about 1.18 m. Similarly Burhi Gandak river on 15.7.04 and Kamla Balan river on 10.7.04 touched all time high flood level. This itself speaks about the fury of flood in the year 2004. Many places in the embankments of north Bihar were breached, resulting in flood inundation in a vast area of North Bihar. Unprecedented flood in river Bagmati, Burhi Gandak, Kamla Balan and Bhutahi Balan and Adhwara group of rivers breached the embankments at many places and there was loss of life and property on a large scale. In river Kosi, situation by and large remain normal. There were altogether 53 number of breaches during 2004 flood season. Crop damage of rupees 52205.64 lacs, public property damage of rupees 103049.64 lacs and death of 885 persons were reported.
Flood situation during 2005 and 2006 remain normal but in the year 2007 the flood situation was serious in north Bihar due to heavy rainfall in catchments of alomost all rivers flood situation during 2007 was very serious in north Bihar. There were 28 breaches at different locations of the embankments during 2007 flood season. Heavy spell of rainfall (average 82.70mm) was observed in the begining of flood season. In Burhi Gandak and in Bagmati river basins there has been regular rainfall in July and August which kept the river water level continuously rising. Almost whole of north Bihar was badly affected and heavy losses of crops and public property occurred.
2008 :- an appreciable amount of rainfall was received on very first day of monsoon season i.e. 15th June ( 160mm at Chanpatia, 141 mm at Sikanderpur and 92.2 mm at Khagaria ). July was the wettest month having maximum rainy days followed by August-08.
There was an unprecedented flood due to breach near 12.9km of Eastern Kosi Afflux Embankment near Kussha village in Nepal on 18th August 2008 that took a shape of a catastrophe leading to miseries to lakhs of people in Sunsari and Saptari districts of Nepal and Supaul, Madhepura, Araria, Saharsa, Katihar and purnea districts of Bihar. River Kosi entirely changed its course from earlier one which was again tamed to its original course by Water Resources Department after a tremendous effort keeping in line with the advice of Kosi Breach Closure Advisory Committee ( KBCAT ).
2009 :- The rainfall was scanty in entire Bihar in the year 2009. The situation was so aggravated that Diasaster Management Department GoB declared 26 districts as draught hit. The first appreciable rain fall was recorded in late June-09 and early July-09. There were few isolated storms at few stations of some basin in September and October. Flood situation remained normal this year except few breaches such as Tilak Tajpur on right embankment of river Bagmati under Runnisaidpur block of Sitamarhi district, Gobindpur site of Labha Choukia Paharpur embankment of Mahananda river and Sallehpur Tandespur site of Gandak river. The loss to life and property brought to minimum by undertaking rescue and relief measures.
The 2008 Bihar flood was one of the most disastrous floods in the history of Bihar, an impoverished and densely populated state in India. A breach in the Kosi embankment near the Indo-Nepal border (at Kusha in Nepal) occurred on 18 August 2008. The river changed course and inundated areas which hadn't experienced floods in many decades.[2] The flood affected over 2.3 million people in the northern part of Bihar.[3]
See also: Kosi embankment
On 18 August 2008, heavy monsoon rains and poor maintenance caused a breach in the Kosi embankment. Water passed through the breach at an estimated 129,800 m³/s, inundating hundreds of villages in northern Bihar. The flood submerged most of the Kosi alluvial fanarea, which is very fertile, with a dense agrarian population.

Background


The Kosi River's upper basin in southern Tibet and eastern Nepal drains some 60,000 km² of mountainous terrain,[4] a region that tectonic forces are elevating by about 1 cm a year.[5] If erosion keeps pace with geologic uplift, an estimated 600 million cubic meters of sediment is potentially carried downstream in an average year. However, empirical measurements of the river's sediment load have yielded estimates of 100 million cubic meters annually,[6] indicating that the area is rising.
River gradient ranges from more than 10 meters/km for major upper tributaries in the mountains to as little as 6 cm/km as the lower Kosi nears the Ganges.[7] As the gradient decreases on the plains, current slows and turbulence that holds sediments in suspension diminishes. Sediments settle out and are deposited on the riverbed. This process eventually raises a channel above the surrounding terrain. The river breaks out, seeking lower terrain, which it again proceeds to elevate by deposition. This creates a cone-shaped alluvial fan. The Kosi alluvial fan is one of the largest in the world, covering some 15,000 km² and extending 180 km from the outermost foothills of the Himalayas to the Ganges river valley.[8]
Flood waters naturally spread out over the surface of this cone. Flows over 25,000 m³/s have been measured where the Kosi exits the Himalayan foothills, enough to create a flow of water 30 km wide.[9] At this rate, in one week enough water would accumulate to cover the entire megafan to a depth of 1.5 meters.
Preventative flood control measures include upstream reservoirs that can also serve irrigation needs and produce hydroelectric power. However, in Nepal these are mostly in the planning stages.[10] The flood control measures mainly consist of downstream embankments meant to confine the river to a fixed channel. In theory, the faster flow along this channel would carry high flows away and keep sediments in suspension.
On 18 August 2008 one of the man-made embankments failed. The river reverted from the prescribed western channel to an old channel near the centre of its alluvial fan. The river spread out widely and inundated towns, villages, and cultivated fields on the densely populated alluvial fan. Recurrent flooding on the lower Kosi contributes largely to India's history of suffering more flood deaths than any other country except Bangladesh, and has earned the Kosi the epithet "The Sorrow of Bihar".[11]