Health

Our today's life is very busy. We ever make some careless behaviour to our health. This careless behaviour costs in our loosing health.For preventing this type of health problems awareness very necessary. Apart of awareness, we also need good quality of medical facilities easily available for us. And, we often see becouse of unavailability of good quility of medicine we ever have to face too many problems.
Our Organization AIBI RESEARCH has done a laudable work in this direction. We have ever work for prevention of some dangerous diseases like Malaria, Kala-azar, HIV, etc. we make people aware of these diseases and tail them the way be secure from these diseases.
Our work is laudable in different parts of state.Specially in Bhojpur, Saharsha, Madhubani, Supall, etc. we done hard work against these diseases we have made them aware and have told them the causes of these diseases and also have worked prevention of these diseases. We are providing them good quality of medicine and making their life.
At all our Organization AIBI RESEARCH has ever work for the welfair of down trodenc people.We hope that we will have a victory on this diseases and will make common life secure.
Status of old age people – Need of care for elderly: OLD AGE HOME

Old Age Homes / Day care centres / Elder Residential Complexes

Retirement homes slowly catching up in India

Information HIV

HIV: The Basics

This section is designed to help you find answers to the most commonly asked questions about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). These articles are especially helpful for those who are newly diagnosed or just beginning to look for information on HIV. They are also excellent educational tools to be printed and shared with others.

What is HIV?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that causes AIDS. A member of a group of viruses called retroviruses, HIV infects human cells and uses the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow and reproduce.
What is AIDS?
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is a disease in which the body's immune system breaks down and is unable to fight off infections, known as "opportunistic infections," and other illnesses that take advantage of a weakened immune system.
When a person is infected with HIV, the virus enters the body and lives and multiplies primarily in the white blood cells. These are immune cells that normally protect us from disease. The hallmark of HIV infection is the progressive loss of a specific type of immune cell called T-helper, or CD4, cells. As the virus grows, it damages or kills these and other cells, weakening the immune system and leaving the person vulnerable to various opportunistic infections and other illnesses ranging from pneumonia to cancer. A person can receive a clinical diagnosis of AIDS, as defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if he or she has tested positive for HIV and meets one or both of these conditions:
• The presence of one or more AIDS-related infections or illnesses;
• A CD4 count that has reached or fallen below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Also called the T-cell count, the CD4 count ranges from 450 to 1200 in healthy individuals.

How quickly do people infected with HIV develop AIDS?

In some people, the T-cell decline and opportunistic infections that signal AIDS develop soon after infection with HIV. But most people do not develop symptoms for 10 to 12 years, and a few remain symptom-free for much longer. As with most diseases, early medical care can help prolong a person's life.
How many people are affected by HIV/AIDS?
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that there are now 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Most of them do not know they carry HIV and may be spreading the virus to others. In the U.S., approximately 1.1 million people are living with HIV/AIDS; about 56,300 Americans became newly infected with HIV in 2006. And the CDC estimates that one-fifth of all people with HIV in the U.S. do not know they are carrying the virus.
Since the beginning of the epidemic, AIDS has killed more than 25 million people worldwide, including more than 583,000 Americans. AIDS ranks with malaria and tuberculosis as one of the top three deadliest infectious diseases among adults and is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. More than 15 million children have been orphaned by HIV.
How is HIV transmitted?
A person who has HIV carries the virus in certain body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. The virus can be transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids enter the bloodstream of another person. This kind of direct entry can occur (1) through the linings of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and the opening at the tip of the penis; (2) through intravenous injection with a syringe; or (3) through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore. Usually, HIV is transmitted through:
• Unprotected sexual intercourse (either vaginal or anal) with someone who has HIV. Women are at greater risk of HIV infection through vaginal sex than men, although the virus can also be transmitted from women to men. Anal sex (whether male-male or male-female) poses a high risk mainly to the receptive partner, because the lining of the anus and rectum is extremely thin and is filled with small blood vessels that can be easily injured during intercourse.
• Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is HIV infected. Laboratory studies show that infectious HIV can survive in used syringes for a month or more. That's why people who inject drugs should never reuse or share syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment. This includes needles or syringes used to inject illegal drugs such as heroin, as well as steroids. Other types of needles, such as those used for body piercing and tattoos, can also carry HIV.
• Infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding (mother-to-infant transmission). Any woman who is pregnant or considering becoming pregnant and thinks she may have been exposed to HIV—even if the exposure occurred years ago—should seek testing and counseling. In the U.S., mother-to-infant transmission has dropped to just a few cases each year because pregnant women are routinely tested for HIV. Those who test positive can get drugs to prevent HIV from being passed on to a fetus or infant, and they are counseled not to breast-feed.
• Unprotected oral sex with someone who has HIV. There are far fewer cases of HIV transmission attributed to oral sex than to either vaginal or anal intercourse, but oral-genital contact poses a clear risk of HIV infection, particularly when ejaculation occurs in the mouth. This risk goes up when either partner has cuts or sores, such as those caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), recent tooth-brushing, or canker sores, which can allow the virus to enter the bloodstream.

How is HIV not transmitted?
HIV is not an easy virus to pass from one person to another. It is not transmitted through food or air (for instance, by coughing or sneezing). There has never been a case where a person was infected by a household member, relative, co-worker, or friend through casual or everyday contact such as sharing eating utensils or bathroom facilities, or through hugging or kissing. (Most scientists agree that while HIV transmission through deep or prolonged "French" kissing may be possible, it would be extremely unlikely.) Here in the U.S., screening the blood supply for HIV has virtually eliminated the risk of infection through blood transfusions (and you cannot get HIV from giving blood at a blood bank or other established blood collection center). Sweat, tears, vomit, feces, and urine do contain HIV, but have not been reported to transmit the disease (apart from two cases involving transmission from fecal matter via cut skin). Mosquitoes, fleas, and other insects do not transmit HIV.
How can I reduce my risk of becoming infected with HIV through sexual contact?
If you are sexually active, protect yourself against HIV by practicing safer sex. Whenever you have sex, use a condom or "dental dam" (a square of latex recommended for use during oral-genital and oral-anal sex). When used properly and consistently, condoms are extremely effective. But remember:
• Use only latex condoms (or dental dams). Lambskin products provide little protection against HIV.
• Use only water-based lubricants. Latex condoms are virtually useless when combined with oil- or petroleum-based lubricants such as Vaseline or hand lotion. (People with latex allergies can use polyethylene condoms with oil-based lubricants).
• Use protection each and every time you have sex.
• If necessary, consult a nurse, doctor, or health educator for guidance on the proper use of latex barriers.

Are there other ways to avoid getting HIV through sex?
The male condom is the only widely available barrier against sexual transmission of HIV. Female condoms are fairly unpopular in the U.S. and still relatively expensive, but they are gaining acceptance in some developing countries. Efforts are also under way to develop topical creams or gels called "microbicides," which could be applied prior to sexual intercourse to kill HIV and prevent other STIs that facilitate HIV infection.
Is there a link between HIV and other sexually transmitted infections?
Having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) can increase your risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. This is true whether you have open sores or breaks in the skin (as with syphilis, herpes, and chancroid) or not (as with chlamydia and gonorrhea). Where there are breaks in the skin, HIV can enter and exit the bloodstream more easily. But even when there are no breaks in the skin, STIs can cause biological changes, such as swelling of tissue, which may make HIV transmission more likely. Studies show that HIV-positive individuals who are infected with another STI are three to five times more likely to contract or transmit the virus through sexual contact.
How can I avoid acquiring HIV from a contaminated syringe?
If you are injecting drugs of any type, including steroids, do not share syringes or other injection equipment with anyone else. (Disinfecting previously used needles and syringes with bleach can reduce the risk of HIV transmission.) If you are planning to have any part of your body pierced or to get a tattoo, be sure to see a qualified professional who uses sterile equipment. Detailed HIV prevention information for drug users who continue to inject is available from the CDC's National Prevention Information Network at 1-800-458-5231 or online at www.cdc.gov/idu.
Are some people at greater risk of HIV infection than others?
HIV does not discriminate. It is not who you are but what you do that determines whether you can become infected with HIV. In the U.S., roughly half of all new HIV infections are related directly or indirectly to injection drug use, i.e., using HIV-contaminated needles or having sexual contact with an HIV-infected drug user. With 56,300 Americans contracting HIV in 2006, there are clearly many people who are still engaging in high-risk behaviors, and infection rates remain alarmingly high among young people, women, African Americans, and Hispanics. The fastest rising infection rates are now found among men who have sex with men, who comprised 53 percent of those newly infected with HIV in 2006; a third of those men were under 30 years of age.
Are women especially vulnerable to HIV?

Women are at least twice as likely to contract HIV through vaginal sex with infected males than vice versa. This biological vulnerability is worsened by social and cultural factors that often undermine women's ability to avoid sex with partners who are HIV-infected or to insist on condom use. In the U.S., the proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among women more than tripled, from 8 percent in 1985 to 26 percent in 2005. African-American and Hispanic women represent less than one-quarter of U.S. women, but account for 80 percent of new infections among American women each year. In 2005, HIV/AIDS was the fourth leading cause of death for African-American men aged 25-44, and the third for African-American women.
Are young people at significant risk of HIV infection?
Many of the 1.1 million people now living with HIV in the U.S. became infected when they were teenagers. The CDC's 2007 statistics show that about 48 percent of American high school students had been sexually active. Young people aged 13–29 accounted for 34 percent of HIV infections in 2006. Many young people also use drugs and alcohol, which can increase the likelihood that they will engage in high-risk sexual behavior.
Are there treatments for HIV/AIDS?
For many years, there were no effective treatments for AIDS. Today, a number of drugs are available to treat HIV infection. Some others are designed to treat the opportunistic infections and illnesses that affect people with AIDS.
The former group of drugs prevents HIV itself from reproducing and destroying the body's immune system:
• Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are incorporated into the virus's DNA and prevent reverse transcriptase from adding nucleotides to form functional viral DNA. They include abacavir, didanosine (ddl), emtricitabine (FTC), lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), tenofovir, and zidovudine (AZT);
• Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors attach themselves to reverse transcriptase to prevent HIV from converting RNA into DNA, thus preventing the cell from producing new virus. "Non-nukes" include delavirdine, efavirinz, etravirine, and nevirapine;
• Protease inhibitors attack the HIV enzyme protease and include amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and tipranavir;
• An entry inhibitor prevents HIV from entering healthy CD4 cells by targeting the CCR5 protein. Maraviroc is the only FDA-approved entry inhibitor;
• A fusion inhibitor stops the virus from entering cells by targeting the gp41 protein on HIV's surface. Enfuvirtide is the only FDA-approved fusion inhibitor; and
• An integrase inhibitor blocks the action of an enzyme produced by HIV that allows it to integrate into the DNA. It is effective against HIV that has become resistant to other antiretroviral drugs. Raltegravir is the only FDA-approved integrase inhibitor.

HIV patients take these drugs in combination—a regimen known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). When taken as directed, anti-HIV treatment can reduce the amount of HIV in the bloodstream to very low levels and often enables the body's immune cells to rebound to normal levels.
In addition to antiretroviral therapy, several drugs can be taken to help prevent a number of opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcus, and cytomegalovirus infection. Once opportunistic infections occur, the same drugs can be used at higher doses to treat these infections, and chemotherapy drugs are available to treat the cancers that commonly occur in AIDS.
Researchers are continuing to develop new drugs that act at critical steps in the virus's life cycle. Efforts are under way to identify new targets for anti-HIV medications and to discover ways of restoring the ability of damaged immune systems to defend against HIV and the many illnesses that affect people with HIV. Ultimately, advances in rebuilding the immune systems of HIV patients will benefit people with a number of serious illnesses, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and immune deficiencies associated with aging and premature birth.
Is there a cure for AIDS?
There is still no cure for AIDS. And while new drugs are helping some people who have HIV live longer, healthier lives, there are many problems associated with them:
• Anti-HIV drugs are highly toxic and can cause serious side effects, including heart damage, kidney failure, and osteoporosis. Many (perhaps even most) patients cannot tolerate long-term treatment with HAART.
• HIV mutates quickly. Even among those who do well on HAART, roughly half of patients experience treatment failure within a year or two, often because the virus develops resistance to existing drugs. In fact, as many as 10 to 20 percent of newly infected Americans are acquiring viral strains that may already be resistant to current drugs.
• Because treatment regimens are unpleasant and complex, many patients miss doses of their medication. Failure to take anti-HIV drugs on schedule and in the prescribed dosage encourages the development of new drug-resistant viral strains.
• Even when patients respond well to treatment, HAART does not eradicate HIV. The virus continues to replicate at low levels and often remains hidden in "reservoirs" in the body, such as in the lymph nodes and brain.

In the U.S., the number of AIDS-related deaths has decreased dramatically because of widely available, potent treatments. But more than 95 percent of all people with HIV/AIDS live in the developing world, and many have little or no access to treatment.
Is there a vaccine to prevent HIV infection?
Despite continued intensive research, experts believe it will be at least a decade before we have a safe, effective, and affordable AIDS vaccine. And even after a vaccine is developed, it will take many years before the millions of people at risk of HIV infection worldwide can be immunized. Until then, other HIV prevention methods, such as practicing safer sex and using sterile syringes, will remain critical.
Can you tell whether someone has HIV or AIDS?
You cannot tell by looking at someone whether he or she is infected with HIV or has AIDS. An infected person can appear completely healthy. But anyone infected with HIV can infect other people, even if they have no symptoms.
How can I know if I'm infected?
Immediately after infection, some people may develop mild, temporary flu-like symptoms or persistently swollen glands. Even if you look and feel healthy, you may be infected. The only way to know your HIV status for sure is to be tested for HIV antibodies—proteins the body produces in an effort to fight off infection. This usually requires a blood sample. If a person's blood has HIV antibodies that means the person is infected.
Should I get tested?
If you think you might have been exposed to HIV, you should get tested as soon as possible. Here's why:
• Even in the early stages of infection, you can take concrete steps to protect your long-term health. Regular check-ups with a doctor who has experience with HIV/AIDS will enable you (and your family members or loved ones) to make the best decisions about whether and when to begin anti-HIV treatment, without waiting until you get sick.
• Taking an active approach to managing HIV may give you many more years of healthy life than you would otherwise have.
• If you are HIV positive, you will be able to take the precautions necessary to protect others from becoming infected.
• If you are HIV positive and pregnant, you can take medications and other precautions to significantly reduce the risk of infecting your infant, including not breast-feeding.

How can I get tested?
Most people are tested by private physicians, at local health department facilities, or in hospitals. In addition, many states offer anonymous HIV testing. It is important to seek testing at a place that also provides counseling about HIV and AIDS. Counselors can answer questions about high-risk behavior and suggest ways you can protect yourself and others in the future. They can also help you understand the meaning of the test results and refer you to local AIDS-related resources.
Though less readily available, there is also a viral load test that can reveal the presence of HIV in the blood within three to five days of initial exposure, as well as highly accurate saliva tests that are nearly equivalent to blood tests in determining HIV antibody status. In many clinics you can now get a test called OraQuick, which gives a preliminary result in 20 minutes. You can also purchase a kit that allows you to collect your own blood sample, send it to a lab for testing, and receive the results anonymously. Only the Home Access brand kit is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. It can be found at most drugstores.
Keep in mind that while most blood tests are able to detect HIV infection within four weeks of initial exposure, it can sometimes take as long as three to six months for HIV antibodies to reach detectable levels. The CDC currently recommends testing six months after the last possible exposure to HIV.
The CDC's National AIDS Hotline can answer questions about HIV testing and refer you to testing sites in your area. Operators are available toll-free, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at:
• 1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
• 101-515-8000 (TTY/deaf access)

How can I help fight HIV/AIDS?
Everyone can play a role in confronting the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Here are just a few suggestions for how you can make a difference:
• Volunteer with your local AIDS service organization.
• Talk with the young people you know about HIV/AIDS.
• Sponsor an AIDS education event or fund raiser with your local school, community group, or religious organization.
• Speak out against AIDS-related discrimination.

Introduction to HIV and AIDS drug treatment
This is the first of a set of treatment pages that give an overview of the issues surrounding HIV and AIDS drug treatment. It is followed by starting, monitoring and switching HIV treatment.
What is HIV antiretroviral drug treatment?
This is the main type of treatment for HIV or AIDS. It is not a cure, but it can stop people from becoming ill for many years. The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person's life.
The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused already.
The drugs are often referred to as:
• antiretrovirals
• ARVs
• anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs
What is combination therapy?
Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination therapy. Taking a combination of three or more anti-HIV drugs is sometimes referred to as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).
Why do people need to take more than one drug at a time?
If only one drug was taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it and the drug would stop working. Taking two or more antiretrovirals at the same time vastly reduces the rate at which resistance would develop, making treatment more effective in the long term.
Our starting, monitoring and switching HIV treatment page has more about drug resistance.
How many HIV and AIDS drugs are there?
There are more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs but not all are licensed or available in every country. See our drugs table for a comprehensive list of antiretroviral drugs approved by the American Food and Drug Administration.
The groups of antiretroviral drugs
There are five groups of antiretroviral drugs. Each of these groups attacks HIV in a different way.
Antiretroviral drug class Abbreviations First approved to treat HIV How they attack HIV
Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors NRTIs,
nucleoside analogues,
nukes 1987 NRTIs interfere with the action of an HIV protein called reverse transcriptase, which the virus needs to make new copies of itself.
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors NNRTIs,
non-nucleosides,
non-nukes 1997 NNRTIs also stop HIV from replicating within cells by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase protein.
Protease Inhibitors PIs 1995 PIs inhibit protease, which is another protein involved in the HIV replication process.
Fusion or Entry Inhibitors 2003 Fusion or entry inhibitors prevent HIV from binding to or entering human immune cells.
Integrase Inhibitors 2007 Integrase inhibitors interfere with the integrase enzyme, which HIV needs to insert its genetic material into human cells.
NRTIs and NNRTIs are available in most countries. Fusion/entry inhibitors and integrase inhibitors are usually only available in resource-rich countries.
Protease inhibitors are generally less suitable for starting treatment in resource-limited settings due to the cost, number of pills which need to be taken, and the particular side effects caused by protease drugs.
What does combination therapy usually consist of?
The most common drug combination given to those beginning treatment consists of two NRTIs combined with either an NNRTI or a "boosted" protease inhibitor. Ritonavir (in small doses) is most commonly used as the booster; it enhances the effects of other protease inhibitors so they can be given in lower doses. An example of a common antiretroviral combination is the two NRTIs zidovudine and lamivudine, combined with the NNRTI efavirenz.
Some antiretroviral drugs have been combined into one pill, which is known as a 'fixed dose combination'. This reduces the number of pills to be taken each day.
The choice of drugs to take can depend on a number of factors, including the availability and price of drugs, the number of pills, the side effects of the drugs, the laboratory monitoring requirements and whether there are co-blister packs or fixed dose combinations available. Most people living with HIV in the developing world still have very limited access to antiretroviral treatment and often only receive treatment for the diseases that occur as a result of a weakened immune system. Such treatment has only short-term benefits because it does not address the underlying immune deficiency itself.
First and second line therapy
At the beginning of treatment, the combination of drugs that a person is given is called first line therapy. If after a while HIV becomes resistant to this combination, or if side effects are particularly bad, then a change to second line therapy is usually recommended.
Second line therapy will ideally include a minimum of three new drugs, with at least one from a new class, in order to increase the likelihood of treatment success.
Our starting, monitoring and switching HIV treatment page has more information about changing HIV treatment.
More information
Choosing when to start antiretroviral treatment is a very important decision. Once treatment has begun it must be adhered to, in spite of side effects and other challenges. Many factors must be weighed up when deciding whether to begin treatment, including the results of various clinical tests. These issues are addressed in our starting, monitoring and switching HIV treatment page.

INTRODUCTION TO MALERIA

Maleria is decribed as the "King of Diseases" and is considered as the Number One killer infection in the world. There is a threatening increase of mosquitoes and other infections like Dengue and Chikungunya which makes it necessary for us to work towards eradicating the meleria diseases.

This infectious disease was considered as nearly-eradicated once but has now emerged with greater power affecting more than 300 million people and kills more than 3 million people every year. Eradication and control of this dreaded disease is possible only by the co-operation between the public and the government agencies. You require the necessary information and details about how this disease is transmitted before you can do something to eradicate the same.

How it happens?

Maleria is caused by Protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax causes the most serious forms of the disease. Other related species also can infect human beings. This group of species is referred to as maleria parasites.

These parasites are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes which multiply within red blood cells. When this mosquito bites an infected individual, the sexual forms of the parasite are sucked and when the same mosquito bites another man for a blood meal, it inoculates the sporozoites into his blood stream and spreads the infection. These mosquitoes usually bite man between 5PM and 7 AM. The transmission of this disease can also happen through blood transfusion, from mother to the growing fetus (known as congenital Maleria) and by needle stick injury.

Malaria infections can be treated with anti-malerial drugs like quinine or artemisinon derivatives even though drug resistance is increasingly common. The bad news is that there are no vaccines available for this vector-borne infectious disease. Preventive drugs must be taken continuously to reduce the risk of infection.
INFORMATION MALARIA

Malaria is…
…one of the most widespread infectious diseases of our time, taking the lives of almost one million people a year, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa and under the age of 5.1It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and almost half the world's population (3.3 billion)1 is at risk. Children and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable.
The disease is not only a major killer in Africa but a primary cause of poverty. It has been estimated to cost Africa more than US$ 12 billion every year in lost GDP.2Malaria traps people in poverty and undermines the development of some of the poorest countries in the world. Though the majority of the cases and deaths (85%)1 from malaria are found in sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is also endemic in Asia and Latin America.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites
Five species
There are five species of protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium that have been known to cause human malaria. Learn about the key differences between the species.
Parasite lifecycle
Malaria parasites are transmitted to man via the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito and so the parasite lifecycle passes through two parts, one in the mosquito and one in its human victim. See the lifecycle and learn more about the key stages that MMV is working to target with new medicines.
Malaria is a potentially fatal disease
Definitions and symptoms
It is the infection and destruction of red blood cells that leads to the clinical signs of malaria: fever and flu-like symptoms, such as chills, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Malaria can also cause anaemia and jaundice due to loss of red blood cells. 3 Unless treated quickly the disease can kill within 24 hours: children under the age of 5 are particularly at risk.
Malaria is tackled with a range of tools
Current tools
Indoor residual spraying with insecticides and long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets kill the mosquito vector and help prevent transmission of the infection. Diagnostics as well as medicines to treat and prevent the disease are available. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is currently in clinical trials and will hopefully be available in the coming years.
Treatment milestones
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently recommended as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P.falciparum malaria by the WHO, but this was not always the case. Learn how the treatment of malaria has progressed over the ages.
Malaria
Malaria Symptoms | Causes | Remedy | Diet |

More Malaria Treatments | FAQ's | 1 Malaria remedies suggested by our users
Malaria is one of the most widespread diseases in the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions.

Malaria symptoms
High fever accompanied by chills, headache, shivering.
There are three main types of malaria, depending upon the parasites which cause it. They are tertian fever, quartan fever and malignant tertian malaria. The most common symptom of all types of malaria is high fever, which may occur every day, on alternate days, or every fourth day. The fever is accompanied by chills, headache, shivering, and pain in the limbs. The temperature comes down after some time with profuse sweating.
anaemia, kidney failure, and dysentery
The main complications of malaria are anaemia, kidney failure, and dysentery.


Malaria causes
Malaria Symptoms, Causes, Remedy and Diet
Caused by a tiny parasite called Plasmodium
Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite called Plasmodium. The parasite grows in the liver of a person for a few days and then enters the bloodstream where it invades the red blood cells. The disease spreads from a sick person to a healthy one by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. She draws a small quantity of blood containing the parasites when she bites a person who has malaria. These parasites then pass through several stages of development within the mosquito's body, and finally find their way to its salivary glands. There they lie in wait for an opportunity to enter the bloodstream of the next person the mosquito bites. The malaria-carrying mosquito breeds in stagnant water.
Naturopathy says wrong feeding habits and a faulty style of living
According to naturopathy, however, the real causes of malaria are wrong feeding habits and a faulty style of living, which result in the system being clogged with accumulated systemic refuse and morbid matter. It is on this soil that the malaria germ breeds. The liberal intake of flesh foods, tinned and other denatured foods, and alcoholic beverages lowers the vitality of the system and paves the way for the development of malaria.

Home Remedies for Malaria
Malaria home remedies and natural cures, Questions and answers
Malaria treatment using Grapefruit
Grapefruit is one of the most effective home remedies for malaria. It should be taken daily. It contains a natural quinine-like substance which can be extracted from the fruit by boiling a quarter of a grapefruit and straining its pulp.
Malaria treatment using Fever Nut
The seeds of the fever nut plant are another effective remedy for malaria. They can be obtained from a herbal store and preserved in a phial for use when required. About six grams of these seeds should be given with a cup of water two hours before the expected onset of the paroxysm of fever, and a second dose should be given one hour after the attack. The paroxysm can thus be avoided but even if it occurs, the same procedure should be resorted to on that day and it will cut short the fever.
Malaria treatment using Datura
The leaves of the datura plant are useful in the tertian type of malarial fever. About two and a half freshly-sprouted leaves of this plant should be made into a pill by rubbing them with jaggery and administered two hours before the onset of the paroxysm.
Malaria treatment using Cinnamon
Cinnamon is regarded as a valuable remedy in malaria. One teaspoon should be coarsely powdered and boiled in a glass of water with a pinch of pepper powder and honey. This can be used beneficially as a medicine in malaria.
Malaria treatment using Chirayata
The herb chirayata, botanically known as Swertia andrographis paniculata, is also beneficial in the treatment of intermittent malarial fevers. It helps in lowering the temperature. An infusion of the herb, prepared by steeping 15 gm of chirayata in 250 ml of hot water with aromatics like cloves and cinnamon, should be given in doses of 15 to 30 ml.
Malaria treatment using Lime and Lemon
Lime and lemon are valuable in the quartan type of malarial fever. About three grams of lime should be dissolved in about 60 ml of water and the juice of one lemon added to it. This water should be taken before the onset of the fever.
Malaria treatment using Alum
Alum is also useful in malaria. It should be roasted over a hot plate and powdered. Half a teaspoon should be taken about four hours before the expected attack and half a teaspoon every two hours after it. This will give relief.
Malaria treatment using Holy Basil
The leaves of holy basil are considered beneficial in the prevention of malaria. An infusion of a few leaves can be taken daily for this purpose. The juice of about eleven grams of leaves of holy basil mixed with three grams of powder of black pepper can be taken beneficially in the cold stage of the malarial fever. This will check the severity of the disease.

Malaria diet
Malaria : Home Remedies suggested by users
Fast on orange juice and water for a few days
Diet is of utmost importance in the treatment of malaria. To begin with, the patient should fast on orange juice and water for a few days, depending on the severity of the fever.
Fresh-fruit diet
After the fever has subsided, the patient should be placed on an exclusive fresh-fruit diet for the first few days. Milk may then be added to the diet.
Well-balanced diet, emphasis on fresh fruits, and raw vegetables
Thereafter, the patient may gradually embark upon a well-balanced diet of natural foods, with emphasis on fresh fruits, and raw vegetables.

Other Malaria treatment
Warm-water enema
A warm-water enema should be administered daily during the juice and water fast to cleanse the bowels.
Cold pack application to the whole body
The best way to reduce temperature naturally during the course of the fever is by means of a cold pack, which can be applied to the whole body. This pack is made by wringing out a sheet or any other large square piece of linen material in cold water, wrapping it right round the body and legs of the patient (twice round would be best), and then covering it completely with a small blanket or similar warm material. This pack should be applied every three hours during the day while the temperature is high and kept on for an hour or so. Hot-water bottles may be kept on the feet and against the sides of the body.
Prevent mosquito bites, cleanliness of surrounding areas
Malaria can be prevented by protection against Malaria can be prevented by protection against mosquito bites, cleanliness of surrounding areas, and ensuring that there is no pool of SL.1.gnant water lying around. , and ensuring that there is no pool of stagnant water lying around.

What is Kala-azar?


• Kala-azar is a slow progressing indigenous disease caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania
• In India Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease
• The parasite primarily infects reticuloendothelial system and may be found in abundance in bone marrow, spleen and liver.
• Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a condition when Leishmania donovani invades skin cells, resides and develops there and manifests as dermal leisions. Some of the kala-azar cases manifests PKDL after a few years of treatment. Recently it is believed that PKDL may appear without passing through visceral stage. However, adequate data is yet to be generated on course of PKDL manifestation
What are Signs & Symptoms of Kala-Azar?
• Recurrent fever intermittent or remittent with often double rise
• loss of appetite, pallor and weight loss with progressive emaciation
• weakness
• Splenomegaly – spleen enlarges rapidly to massive enlargement, usually soft and nontender
• Liver – enlargement not to the extent of spleen, soft, smooth surface, sharp edge
• Lymphadenopathy – not very common in India
• Skin – dry, thin and scaly and hair may be lost. Light coloured persons show grayish discolouration of the skin of hands, feet, abdomen and face which gives the Indian name Kala-azar meaning "Black fever"
• Anaemia – develops rapidly
Anaemia with emaciation and gross splenomegaly produces a typical appearance of the patients
What is Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL)?
Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis is a condition in which Leishmania donovani parasites are found in skin. PKDL develops in some of the Indian kala-azar patients usually 1-2 years or more following recovery of Kala-azar; less commonly without suffering from Kala-azar
What are Signs & Symptoms of PKDL?
Types of morphological lesions:
o Early hypopigmented macules similar to macular lesions of Lepromatous Leprosy but normally less than 1 cm. Usually occur on face but can affect any part of the body.
o Later (after a variable period of months or years) diffuse nodular lesions on those macules
o Erythematous butterfly rash which may be aggravated by exposure to Sunlight; an early sign of PKDL
o Erythematous papules and nodules which usually occur on face, especially the chin.
o Lesions progressive over many years , seldom heal spontaneously
Rare manifestations of PKDL include:
o Multiple lesions coalesce to form larger plaque type lesions
o Verrucous lesions (hands and feet)
o Papillomatous lesions (on muzzle area of face, nose, chin, and lips)
o Hypertrophic lesions (eyelids, nose and lips)
o Xanthematous rash (orange plaque on axillary fold, cubital fossae, inner thighs, outer canthus of the eye and perioral)
o Pityriasis rosea like lesions
HIV and Kala-azar co-infection
• Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as an opportunistic infection in HIV and other immunosuppressed patients
• More than 1000 cases of HIV and VL are reported from 25 countries. However, in India yet not a serious problem
• VL may be first Opportunistic Infection in asymptomatic HIV-I infected person
• Also occurs in advanced stage of AIDS
• All co-infected patients are not symptomatic
• Diagnosis may be altered because symptoms may be of short duration; fever and spleen may not be marked; Leishmania antibodies may be undetectable.
• However peripheral blood smears of buffycoat and blood culture may yield good results
• Response to treatment is poor; drug side effects may be more and relapses may be common
How Kala-azar is transmitted?
• Kala-azar is a vector borne disease
• Sandfly of genus Phlebotomus argentipes are the only known vectors of kala-azar in India
• Indian Kala-azar has a unique epidemiological feature of beingAnthroponotic; human is the only known reservoir of infection
• Female snadflies pick up parasite (Amastigote or LD bodies)while feeding on an infected human host.
• Parasite undergo morphological change to become flagellate (Promastigote or Leptomonad), development and multiplication in the gut of sandflies and move to mouthparts
• Healthy human hosts get infection when an infective sandfly vector bites them
Kala-azar Vector in India
• There is only one sandfly vector of Kala-azar in India Phlebotomus aregentipes
• Sandflies are small insects, about one fourth of a mosquito. The length of a snadfly body ranges from 1.5 to 3.5 mm.
• Adult is a small fuzzy, delicately proportionate fly with erect large wings. The entire body including wings is heavily clothed with long hairs.
• Life cycle consists of egg, four instars of larvae, pupa and adult. The whole cycle takes more than a month, however, duration depends on temperature and other ecological conditions
• They prefer high relative humidity, warm temperature, high subsoil water and abundance of vegetation.
• Sandflies breed in favourable micro-climatic conditions in places with high organic matter that serve as food for larvae
• These are ecologically sensitive insects, fragile and cannot withstand desiccation

A new strategy for elimination of kala-azar from rural Bihar
Background & objectives: Bihar State of India has been an endemic State for kala-azar. There has been many phases of DDT sprays for vector control. An outbreak of kala-azar occurred in Goanpura, 6 km from Patna, Bihar, in 2003. We undertook this study with a new approach of kala-azar elimination in this village with priority to treatment of cases followed by supplementation with supervised DDT spray for vector control. Methods: This study included a camp approach to collect patients at in the camp, screening of patients with rK-39, transporting the patients to the hospital of Balaji Utthan Sansthan, Patna, Bihar, confirming the diagnosis by demonstration of Leishman-Donovan (LD) bodies in splenic aspirates a f t e r p r o p e r c l i n i c a l a n d p a t h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , a n d t r e a tme n t wi t h amp h o t e r i c i n B (Fungizone®) at a dose of 1mg/kg body wt for 20 days. If parasites persisted after 20 days, five more infusions were given. The State Government was persuaded to do supervised DDT spray as per the guidelines. All patients were followed up for 6 months for any relapse, and the village of Goanpura for 3 years for occurrence of any new case. Results: A camp was held in that village on September 11, 2003 after due publicity. A total of 368 patients having different ailments, attended the camp; 25 patients were screened with rk-39 for kala-azar and 21 patients gave positive results. All 21 patients were shifted to Balaji Utthan Sansthan for treatment. After thorough clinical examination and pathological tests splenic aspiration was done. All 21 patients were positive for LD bodies. One patient died and the remaining 20 completed full course of treatment and were cured. No patients relapsed within six months of follow up. Two rounds of supervised DDT spray were done. No new case occurred in the village during three years of follow up. No sandfly was detected in the village during the years of follow up. Interpretation & conclusions: Camp strategy to collect patients at one place, screening of patients with rk-39, transporting rk-39 positive patients to the hospital, treatment with an effective drug amphotericin B with no incidence of unresponsiveness and relapsed minimized transmission of the disease; only two rounds of supervised intensive spray of DDT eliminated sandflies from the village. This new cost effective approach in which treatment of patients was done with an effective drug followed by supervised DDT spray may be adopted for elimination of kala-azar from Bihar. Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis), transmitted by
t h e b i t e o f i n f e c t e d f ema l e s a n d l y o f t h e g e n u s Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus argentipes) 1has assumed epidemic proportion in Bihar. Kala-azar epidemic in India started from Assam, spread to West Bengal and reached Bihar more than 100 yr ago in Purnea district 2 Many attempts made in the past to eliminate the disease have failed. Kala-azar in Bihar was supposed to be eliminated as a secondary effect of DDT spray done
u n d e r Na t i o n a l Ma l a r i a E r a d i c a t i o n P r o g r amme (NMEP), now National Anti Malaria Programme (NAMP) which started in 1953 and ended in 1964 in Bihar 3,4 . After 1964 it was thought that kala-azar had been eliminated from Bihar, and presence of chronic cases of kala-azar and some reports of kala-azar cases from Muzaffarpur 5 and other areas and a large series of cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) reported from Patna were ignored 6 A big epidemic of kala-azar with 100,000 cases occurred in Bihar in 1977 3,4 though official figure was 18,589 only (unpublished data from Department of Health, Government of Bihar, based on reports from Primary Health Centres; Table I). With the help of Government of India a disease control programme with vector control by DDT spray and treatment of cases with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) was started in 1977. Three years of effort done in implementation of this programme brought down kala-azar cases to its l owe s t l e v e l i n 1 9 8 2 t o 11 , 1 2 0 b u t t h e c o n t r o l programme was discontinued in 1979 (Figures for PKDL not available). The disease started increasing again from 1983 and reached 250,000 in 1991-1992 according to a survey done by the Ministry of Health 7, Government of India, the official figure was 75,523 in 1992 (unpublished data from Department of Health, Government of Bihar, based on reports from Primary Health Centres). DDT spray and treatment of cases with SAG was started again, and was discontinued in 1995. In Assam in 1920s when the vector control approach was not developed, Shortt 8 controlled the epidemic only with treatment oriented approach. Sen Gupta 9 was not happy with a programme in which priority was given to vector control or to programmes which had failed. He also believed that SAG was a less effective drug 9 An outbreak of kala-azar occurred in Goanpura about 6 km from Patna, Bihar, in 2003. Based on the facts available, a study protocol was prepared for elimination of kala-azar from Goanpura in which emphasis was on treatment of all cases. The protocol consisted of the followings (i) a camp approach which included 3 days of publicity prior to holding the camp, (ii) All suspected cases of kala-azar i.e., patients with fever of more than two weeks duration with hepatosplenomegaly were to be screened with rK-39 in that camp. A protocol for rK-39 was also prepared. This test has been used extensively in India and in 98 per cent of cases gave positive result 10,11 , (iii) All rK-39 positive cases were to be t r anspor t ed to the hospi t a l of "Ba l a j i Ut than Sansthan", Patna, for treatment, (iv) All patients subjected to routine investigations and splenic.
Material & Methods
Yearly figures of kala-azar cases in Bihar were obtained from Malaria Departments of Government of Bihar and Government of India between 1977 to 2006. The effect of control measures taken were studied during different periods. Protocol for elimination of kala-azar was approved by the local ethics committee of Balaji Utthan Sansthan. The camp was held on September 11, 2003 and was widely advertised in local newspapers. The protocol forrk-39 was explained to the workers who used the strip, and two coloured lines appearing on the strip were taken as positive (InBios International, Inc, Seattle, WA USA 98104). Amphotericin B (Sarabhai Chemicals, Vadodara,India) was given at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight daily as slow intravenous infusion in more than 2 h for 20 days 14. Paracitamol tablets and hydrocortisone injection were kept ready to deal with any untoward reaction. rk-39 test was used to screen the patients with fever of > 2 wk duration or if fever was associated with enlargement of spleen and liver. All rk 39 positive cases were taken to the hospital of Balaji Utthan Sansthan. The patients were treated after parasitological confirmation of the disease with amphotericin B deoxycholate. After completion of treatment splenic aspiration was done to assess the parasitological cure. If parasites persisted on day 21, five more infusions were given. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Any new case in that village and in the neighbouring and nearby villages was treated similarly. Goanpura and neighbouring villages were kept under regular surveillance. The government authorities would be approached for DDT spray and entomologica study of the village Goanpura.